AnnouncingFAO Manual on Aquaponics available now in resources!
FeaturesPricingSupportSign In

Chapter 4 Hydroponic Technologies

5 months ago

12 min read

Carmelo Maucieri, Carlo Nicoletto, Erik van Os, Dieter Anseeuw, Robin Van Havermaet, and Ranka Junge

Abstract Hydroponics is a method to grow crops without soil, and as such, these systems are added to aquaculture components to create aquaponics systems. Thus, together with the recirculating aquaculture system (RAS), hydroponic production forms a key part of the aqua-agricultural system of aquaponics. Many different existing hydroponic technologies can be applied when designing aquaponics systems. This depends on the environmental and financial circumstances, the type of crop that is cultivated and the available space. This chapter provides an overview of different hydroponic types, including substrates, nutrients and nutrient solutions, and disinfection methods of the recirculating nutrient solutions.

Keywords Hydroponics · Soilless culture · Nutrients · Grow media · Aeroponics · Aquaponics · Nutrient solution

Contents


C. Maucieri · C. Nicoletto

Department of Agriculture, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment, University of Padova, Campus of Agripolis, Legnaro, Italy

E. v. Os

Wageningen University and Research, Business Unit Greenhouse Horticulture, Wageningen, The Netherlands

D. Anseeuw

Inagro, Roeselare, Belgium

R. V. Havermaet

Provinciaal Proefcentrum voor de Groenteteelt Oost-Vlaanderen, Kruishoutem, Belgium

R. Junge

Institute of Natural Resource Sciences Grüental, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Wädenswil, Switzerland

© The Author(s) 2019 77

S. Goddek et al. (eds.), Aquaponics Food Production Systems, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-15943-6_4


References

Abad M, Noguera P, Puchades R, Maquieira A, Noguera V (2002) Physico-chemical and chemical properties of some coconut coir dusts for use as a peat substitute for containerised ornamental plants. Bioresour Technol 82:241—245

Adams P (1991) Effect of increasing the salinity of the nutrient solution with major nutrients or sodium chloride on the yield, quality and composition of tomatoes grown in rockwool. J Hortic Sci 66:201—207

Adams P, Ho LC (1992) The susceptibility of modern tomato cultivars to blossom-end rot in relation to salinity. J Hortic Sci 67:827—839

Baxter I (2015) Should we treat the ionome as a combination of individual elements, or should we be deriving novel combined traits? J Exp Bot 66:2127—2131

Bittsanszky A, Uzinger N, Gyulai G, Mathis A, Junge R, Villarroel M, Kotzen B, Komives T (2016) Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems. Ecocycles 2:17—20

Blok C, de Kreij C, Baas R, Wever G (2008) Analytical methods used in soilless cultivation. In: Raviv, Lieth (eds) Soilless culture, theory and practice. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 245—290 Briat JF, Dubos C, Gaymard F (2015) Iron nutrition, biomass production, and plant product quality. Trends Plant Sci 20:33—40

Bunt BR (2012) Media and mixes for container-grown plants: a manual on the preparation and use of growing media for pot plants. Springer, Dordrecht

Cooper A (1979) The ABC of NFT. Grower Books, London

Cortella G, Saro O, De Angelis A, Ceccotti L, Tomasi N, Dalla Costa L, Manzocco L, Pinton R, Mimmo T, Cesco S (2014) Temperature control of nutrient solution in floating system cultivation. Appl Therm Eng 73:1055—1065

De Kreij C, Voogt W, Baas R (1999) Nutrient solutions and water quality for soilless cultures, report 196. Research station for Floriculture and Glasshouse Vegetables, Naaldwijk, p 36

De Rijck G, Schrevens E (1997) pH influenced by the elemental composition of nutrient solutions. J Plant Nutr 20:911—923

De Rijck G, Schrevens E (1998) Elemental bioavailability in nutrient solutions in relation to complexation reactions. J Plant Nutr 21:2103—2113

De Rijck G, Schrevens E (1999) Anion speciation in nutrient solutions as a function of pH. J Plant Nutr 22:269—279

Dong S, Scagel CF, Cheng L, Fuchigami LH, Rygiewicz PT (2001) Soil temperature and plant growth stage influence nitrogen uptake and amino acid concentration of apple during early spring growth. Tree Physiol 21:541—547

Dorais M, Menard C, Begin G (2006) Risk of phytotoxicity of sawdust substrates for greenhouse vegetables. In: XXVII International Horticultural Congress-IHC2006: International symposium on advances in environmental control, automation 761, pp 589—595

Enzo M, Gianquinto G, Lazzarin R, Pimpini F, Sambo P (2001) Principi tecnico-agronomici della fertirrigazione e del fuori suolo. In: Tipografia-Garbin. Padova, Italy

EU Aquaponics Hub. Plant Protection Fact Sheet. http://euaquaponicshub.com/hub/wp-content/ uploads/2016/05/Plant-protection-factsheet.pdf

European Parliament and European Council (2000) Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy (short: Water Framework Directive) Off J Eur Communities, p 327/1

Fageria NK, Baligar VC, Clark RB (2002) Micronutrients in crop production. Adv Agron 77:185—268

Fanasca S, Colla G, Maiani G, Venneria E, Rouphael Y, Azzini E, Saccardo F (2006) Changes in antioxidant content of tomato fruits in response to cultivar and nutrient solution composition. J Agric Food Chem 54:4319—4325

Fernandez D (2016) HydroBuddy v1.50: The first free Open source hydroponic nutrient calculator program Available Online [WWW document]. Sci Hydroponics. http://scienceinhydroponics. com/

Fornes F, Belda RM, Abad M, Noguera P, Puchades R, Maquieira A, Noguera V (2003) The microstructure of coconut coir dusts for use as alternatives to peat in soilless growing media. Aust J Exp Agr 43:1171—1179

Gibson JL (2007) Nutrient deficiencies in bedding plants. Ball Publishing, Batavia

Goddek S, Keesman KJ (2018) The necessity of desalination technology for designing and sizing multi-loop aquaponics systems. Desalination 428:76—85

Haynes RJ (1990) Active ion uptake and maintenance of cation-anion balance: a critical examination of their role in regulating rhizosphere pH. Plant Soil 126:247—264

Heuvelink E, Kierkels T (2016) Iron is essential for photosynthesis and respiration: iron deficiency. In Greenhouses: the international magazine for greenhouse growers 5, pp 48—49

Ho LC, Belda R, Brown M (1993) Uptake and transport of calcium and the possible causes of blossom-end rot in tomato. J Exp Bot 44:509—518

Hoagland DR, Arnon DI (1950) The water culture method for growing plants without soil, Circular 347, Agricultural Experimental station, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

Huett DO (1994) Growth, nutrient uptake and tipburn severity of hydroponic lettuce in response to electrical conductivity and K:Ca ratio in solution. Aust J Agric Res 45:251—267

Hussain A, Iqbal K, Aziem S, Mahato P, Negi AK (2014) A review on the science of growing crops without soil (soilless culture)-a novel alternative for growing crops. Int J Agric Crop Sci 7:833—842

Jensen MH, Collins WL (1985) Hydroponic vegetable production. Hortic Rev 7:483—558

Kipp JA, Wever G, de Kreij C (2001) International substrate manual. Elsevier, Amsterdam

Kuhry P, Vitt DH (1996) Fossil carbon/nitrogen ratios as a measure of peat decomposition. Ecology 77:271—275

Lamanna D, Castelnuovo M, D'Angelo G (1990) Compost-based media as alternative to peat on ten pot ornamentals. Acta Hortic 294:125—130

Le Bot J, Adamowicz S, Robin P (1998) Modelling plant nutrition of horticultural crops: a review. Sci Hortic 74:47—82

Le Quillec S, Fabre R, Lesourd D (2003) Phytotoxicité sur tomate et chlorate de sodium. Infos-ctifl, pp 40—43

Liu S, Hou Y, Chen X, Gao Y, Li H, Sun S (2014) Combination of fluconazole with non-antifungal agents: a promising approach to cope with resistant Candida albicans infections and insight into new antifungal agent discovery. Int J Antimicrob Agents 43:395—402

Maher MJ, Prasad M, Raviv M (2008) Organic soilless media components. In: Raviv, Lieth (eds) Soilless culture, theory and practice. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 459—504

Marschner P (2012) Rhizosphere biology. In: Marschner's mineral nutrition of higher plants, 3rd edn. Academic, Amsterdam, pp 369—388

Masclaux-Daubresse C, Daniel-Vedele F, Dechorgnat J, Chardon F, Gaufichon L, Suzuki A (2010) Nitrogen uptake, assimilation and remobilization in plants: challenges for sustainable and productive agriculture. Ann Bot 105:1141—1157

Maucieri C, Nicoletto C, Junge R, Schmautz Z, Sambo P, Borin M (2018) Hydroponic systems and water management in aquaponics: a review. Ital J Agron 13:1—11

McCutchan JH, Lewis WM, Kendall C, McGrath CC (2003) Variation in trophic shift for stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Oikos 102:378—390

Moriarty MJ, Semmens K, Bissonnette GK, Jaczynski J (2018) Inactivation with UV-radiation and internalization assessment of coliforms and Escherichia coli in aquaponically grown lettuce. LWT 89:624—630

Muneer S, Lee BR, Kim KY, Park SH, Zhang Q, Kim TH (2014) Involvement of Sulphur nutrition in modulating iron deficiency responses in photosynthetic organelles of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Photosynth Res 119:319—329

NGS, Multilayer. http://ngsystem.com/en/ngs/multibanda

Nicoletto C, Maucieri C, Sambo P (2017) Effects on water management and quality characteristics of ozone application in chicory forcing process: a pilot system. Agronomy 7:29

Nicoletto C, Maucieri C, Mathis A, Schmautz Z, Komives T, Sambo P, Junge R (2018) Extension of aquaponic water use for NFT baby-leaf production: mizuna and rocket salad. Agronomy 8:75 Nozzi V, Graber A, Schmautz Z, Mathis A, Junge R (2018) Nutrient management in aquaponics: comparison of three approaches for cultivating lettuce, mint and mushroom herb. Agronomy 8:27

Olle M, Ngouajio M, Siomos A (2012) Vegetable quality and productivity as influenced by growing medium: a review. Agriculture 99:399—408

Parent S-É, Parent LE, Egozcue JJ, Rozane D-E, Hernandes A, Lapointe L, Hébert-Gentile V, Naess K, Marchand S, Lafond J, Mattos D, Barlow P, Natale W (2013) The plant ionome revisited by the nutrient balance concept. Front Plant Sci 4:39

Perelli M, Graziano PL, Calzavara R (2009) Nutrire le piante. Arvan Ed., Venice.

Pickering HW, Menzies NW, Hunter MN (2002) Zeolite/rock phosphate — a novel slow release phosphorus fertiliser for potted plant production. Sci Hortic 94:333—343

Postma J, van Os EA, Bonants PJM (2008) Pathogen detection and management strategies in soilless plant growing systems. In: Raviv, Lieth (eds) Soilless culture, theory and practice. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 425—458

Pregitzer KS, King JS (2005) Effects of soil temperature on nutrient uptake. In: Nutrient acquisition by plants. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 277—310

Rooney CP, Zhao FJ, McGrath SP (2006) Soil factors controlling the expression of copper toxicity to plants in a wide range of European soils. Environ Toxicol Chem 25:726—732

Ruijs MNA (1994) Economic evaluation of closed production systems in glasshouse horticulture. Acta Hortic 340:87—94

Runia WT (1995) A review of possibilities for disinfection of recirculation water from soilless culture. Acta Hortic 382:221—229

Runia WT, van Os EA, Bollen GJ (1988) Disinfection of drain water from soilless cultures by heat treatment. Neth J Agric Sci 36:231—238

Schmautz Z, Graber A, Jaenicke S, Goesmann A, Junge R, Smits TH (2017) Microbial diversity in different compartments of an aquaponics system. Arch Microbiol 199:613—620

Schnug E, Haneklaus S (2005) Sulphur deficiency symptoms in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)the aesthetics of starvation. Phyton 45:79—95

Silber A, Bar-Tal A (2008) Nutrition of substrate-grown plants. In: Raviv, Lieth (eds) Soilless culture, theory and practice. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 292—342

Sonneveld C, Voogt W (2009) Plant nutrition of greenhouse crops. Springer, Dordrecht, p 403

Steiner AA (1961) A universal method for preparing nutrient solutions of a certain desired composition. Plant Soil 15:134—154

Steiner AA (1984) The universal nutrient solution. In: Proceeding 6th International congress on soilless culture. Lunteren, Netherlands, ISOSC, pp 633—649

Tindall JA, Mills HA, Radcliffe DE (1990) The effect of root zone temperature on nutrient uptake of tomato. J Plant Nutr 13:939—956

Trang NTD, Brix H (2014) Use of planted biofilters in integrated recirculating aquaculturehydroponics systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Aquac Res 45:460—469

Uchida R (2000) Essential nutrients for plant growth: nutrient functions and deficiency symptoms. In: Silva JA, Uchida R (eds) Plant nutrient management in Hawaii's soils, approaches for tropical and subtropical agriculture. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, pp 31—55

Van Os EA (1994) Closed growing systems for more efficient and environmental friendly production. Acta Hortic 361:194—200

Van Os EA (1999) Closed soilless growing systems: a sustainable solution for Dutch greenhouse horticulture. Water Sci Technol 39:105—112

Van Os EA (2009) Comparison of some chemical and non-chemical treatments to disinfect a recirculating nutrient solution. Acta Hortic 843:229—234

Van Os EA (2017) Recent advances in soilless culture in Europe. Acta Hortic 1176:1—8

Van Os EA, Gieling TH, Lieth JH (2008) Technical equipment in soilless production systems. In: Raviv, Lieth (eds) Soilless culture, theory and practice. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 157—207

Vance CP, Uhde-Stone C, Allan DL (2003) Phosphorus acquisition and use: critical adaptations by plants for securing a nonrenewable resource. New Phytol 157:423—447

Verdonck O, Penninck RD, De Boodt M (1983) The physical properties of different horticultural substrates. Acta Hortic 150:155—160

Verwer FLJA (1978) Research and results with horticultural crops grown in rockwool and nutrient film. Acta Hortic 82:141—148

Wallach J (2008) Physical characteristics of soilless media. In: Raviv, Lieth (eds) Soilless culture, theory and practice. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 41—116

Wang M, Zheng Q, Shen Q, Guo S (2013) The critical role of potassium in plant stress response. Int J Mol Sci 14:7370—7390

Wu M, Kubota C (2008) Effects of high electrical conductivity of nutrient solution and its application timing on lycopene, chlorophyll and sugar concentrations of hydroponic tomatoes during ripening. Sci Hortic 116:122—129

Zekki H, Gauthier L, Gosselin A (1996) Growth, productivity, and mineral composition of hydroponically cultivated greenhouse tomatoes, with or without nutrient solution recycling. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 121:1082—1088

Zoschke K, Börnick H, Worch E (2014) Vacuum-UV radiation at 185 nm in water treatment—a review. Water Res 52:131—145

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.