AnnouncingFAO Manual on Aquaponics available now in resources!
FeaturesPricingSupportSign In

Chapter 3 Recirculating Aquaculture Technologies

4 months ago

29 min read

Carlos A. Espinal and Daniel Matulić

Abstract Recirculating aquaculture technology, which includes aquaponics, has been under development for the past 40 years from a combination of technologies derived from the wastewater treatment and aquaculture sectors. Until recently, recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) farms have been relatively small compared with other types of modern aquaculture production. The last two decades have seen a significant increase in the development of this technology, with increased market acceptance and scale. This chapter provides a brief overview of the history, water quality control processes, new developments and ongoing challenges of RAS.

Keywords Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) · Wastewater treatment · Biofilter · Denitrification · Membrane technology


A. Espinal

Landing Aquaculture, Oirschot, The Netherlands


Department of Fisheries, Beekeeping, Game management and Special Zoology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

© The Author(s) 2019 35

S. Goddek et al. (eds.), Aquaponics Food Production Systems,


Altinok I, Grizzle JM (2004) Excretion of ammonia and urea by phylogenetically diverse fish species in low salinities. Aquaculture 238:499—507. 06.020

Ashley PJ (2007) Fish welfare: current issues in aquaculture. Appl Anim Behav Sci 104 (2—4):199—235.

Ashley KI, Mavinic DS, Hall KJ (2008) Oxygenation performance of a laboratory-scale Speece Cone hypolimnetic aerator: preliminary assessment. Can J Civ Eng 35:663—675. 10.1139/L08-011

Attramadal K, Salvesen I, Xue R, Øie G, Størseth TR, Vadstein O, Olsen Y (2012a) Recirculation as a possible microbial control strategy in the production of marine larvae. Aquac Eng 46:27—39.

Attramadal K, Øie G, Størseth TR, Morten OA, Vadstein O, Olsen Y (2012b) The effects of moderate ozonation or high intensity UV-irradiation on the microbial environment in RAS for marine larvae. Aquaculture 330—333:121—129. 042

Attramadal KJK, Truong TMH, Bakke I, Skjermo J, Olsen Y, Vadstein O (2014) RAS and microbial maturation as tools for K-selection of microbial communities improve survival in cod larvae. Aquaculture 432:483—490.

Attramadal K, Minniti G, Øie G, Kjørsvik E, Østensen M-A, Bakke I, Vadstein O (2016) Microbial maturation of intake water at different carrying capacities affects microbial control in rearing tanks for marine fish larvae. Aquaculture 457:68—72. 2016.02.015

Avnimelech Y (1999) Carbon/nitrogen ratio as a control element in aquaculture systems. Aquaculture 176(3—4):227—235.

Badiola M, Mendiola D, Bostock J (2012) Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) analysis: main issues on management and future challenges. Aquac Eng 51:26—35

Badiola M, Basurko OC, Gabiña G, Mendiola D (2014) Energy audits in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS): as a way forward to guarantee sustainability. AE2014 conference paper. https://

Barreto RE, Volpato GL (2004) Caution for using ventilatory frequency as an indicator of stress in fish. Behav Process 66:43—51.

Bart AN, Clark J, Young J, Zohar Y (2001) Underwater ambient noise measurements in aquaculture systems: a survey. Aquac Eng 25:99—110.

Barton B (2002) Stress in fishes: a diversity of responses with particular reference to changes in circulating corticosteroids. Integr Comp Biol 42:517—525

Becke C, Steinhagen D, Schumann M, Brinker A (2016) Physiological consequences for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of short-term exposure to increased suspended solid load. Aquac Eng.

Blancheton JP, Attramadal KJK, Michaud L, Roque d'Orbcastel E, Vadstein O (2013) Insight into bacterial population in aquaculture systems and its implication. Aquac Eng 53:30—39. https://

Bock E, Sundermeyer-Klinger H, Stackerbrandt E (1983) New facultative lithoatotrophic nitrinteoxidizing bacteria. Arch Microbiol 136:281—284.

Bovendeur J, Eding EH, Henken AM (1987) Design and performance of a water recirculation system for high-density culture of the African catfish, Clarias-gariepinus (Burchell 1822). Aquaculture 63:329—353.

Browdy CL, Ray AJ, Leffler JW, Avnimelech Y (2012) Biofloc-based aquaculture systems. In: Tidwell JH (ed) Aquaculture production systems. Wiley, Oxford

Bruhn JB, Nielsen KF, Hjelm M, Hansen M, Bresciani J, Schulz S, Gram L (2005) Ecology, inhibitory activity, and morphogenesis of a marine antagonistic bacterium belonging to the Roseobacter clade. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:7263—7270. 11.7263-7270.2005

Calabrese S, Nilsen TO, Kolarevic J, Ebbesson LOE, Pedrosa C, Fivelstad S, Hosfeld C, Stefansson SO, Terjesen BF, Takle H, Martins CIM, Sveier H, Mathisen F, Imsland AK, Handeland SO (2017) Stocking density limits for post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) with emphasis on production performance and welfare. Aquaculture 468(1):363—370. aquaculture.2016.10.041

Camargo JA, Alonso A (2006) Ecological and toxicological effects of inorganic nitrogen pollution in aquatic ecosystems: a global assessment. Environ Int 32:831—849. envint.2006.05.002

Chen S, Coffin DE, Malone RF (1994) Suspended solids control in recirculating aquaculture systems. In: Timmons MB, Losordo TM (eds) Aquaculture water reuse systems: engineering design and management. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 61—100

Christianson L, Lepine C, Tsukuda S, Saito K, Summerfelt S (2015) Nitrate removal effectiveness of fluidized sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification biofilters for recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquac Eng:10—18.

Colt J (1991) Aquacultural production systems. J Anim Sci 69:4183—4192. 1991.69104183x

Colt J (2006) Water quality requirements for reuse systems. Aquac Eng 34(3):143—156. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2005.08.011

Colt J, Bouck G (1984) Design of packed columns for degassing. Aquac Eng 3:251—273. https://

Colt JE, Watten BJ (1988) Applications of pure oxygen in fish culture. Aquac Eng 7:397—441.

Conte FS (2004) Stress and the welfare of cultured fish. Appl Anim Behav Sci 86:205—223. https://

Couturier M, Trofimencoff T, Buil JU, Conroy J (2009) Solids removal at a recirculating salmonsmolt farm. Aquac Eng 41:71—77.

Cripps SJ, Bergheim A (2000) Solids management and removal for intensive land-based aquaculture production systems. Aquac Eng 22:33—56.

Crossley PL (2004) Sub-irrigation in wetland agriculture. Agric Hum Values 21(2/3):191—205. Accessed 18 Dec 2017

Dabrowska H, Dabrowski K, Meyerburgdorff K, Hanke W, Gunther KD (1991) The effect of large doses of Vitamin-C and magnesium on stress responses in Common Carp, Cyprinus-Carpio. Comp Biochem Physiol A 99:681—685.

Daims H, Lebedeva EV, Pjevac P, Han P, Herbold C, Albertsen M, Jehmlich N, Palatinszky M, Vierheilig J, Bulaev A, Kirkegaard RH, von Bergen M, Rattei T, Bendinger B, Nielsen PH, Wagner M (2015) Complete nitrification by Nitrospira bacteria. Nature 528:504—509. https://

Davidson J, Summerfelt S (2004) Solids flushing, mixing, and water velocity profiles within large (10 and 150 m3) circular "Cornell-type" dual-drain tanks. Aquac Eng 32:245—271. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2004.03.009

Davidson J, Bebak J, Mazik P (2009) The effects of aquaculture production noise on the growth, condition factor, feed conversion, and survival of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture 288(3—4):337—343.

Davidson J, Good C, Welsh C, Summerfelt S (2014) Comparing the effects of high vs. low nitrate on the health, performance, and welfare of juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss within water recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquac Eng 59:30—40. aquaeng.2014.01.003

Davidson J, Good C, Williams C, Summerfelt S (2017) Evaluating the chronic effects of nitrate on the health and performance of post-smolt Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in freshwater recirculation aquaculture systems. Aquac Eng 79:1—8

Dawkins MS (1998) Evolution and animal welfare. Q Rev Biol 73:305—328. 1086/420307

De Carvalho RAPLF, Lemos DEL, Tacon AGJ (2013) Performance of single-drain and dual-drain tanks in terms of water velocity profile and solids flushing for in vivo digestibility studies in juvenile shrimp. Aquac Eng 57:9—17.

De Ionno PN, Wines GL, Jones PL, Collins RO (2007) A bioeconomic evaluation of a commercial scale recirculating finfish growout system—-An Australian perspective. Aquaculture 259 (1):315—327.

Defoirdt T, Boon N, Sorgeloos P, Verstraete W, Bossier P (2007) Alternatives to antibiotics to control bacterial infections: luminescent vibriosis in aquaculture as an example. Trends Biotechnol 25:472—479.

Defoirdt T, Boon N, Sorgeloos P, Verstraete W, Bossier P (2008) Quorum sensing and quorum quenching in Vibrio harveyi: lessons learned from in vivo work. ISME J 2:19—26. https://doi. org/10.1038/ismej.2007.92

Díaz V, Ibáñez R, Gómez P, Urtiaga AM, Ortiz I (2012) Kinetics of nitrogen compounds in a commercial marine Recirculating Aquaculture System. Aquac Eng 50:20—27. 1016/j.aquaeng.2012.03.004

Dolan E, Murphy N, O'Hehir M (2013) Factors influencing optimal micro-screen drum filter selection for recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquac Eng 56:42—50. j.aquaeng.2013.04.005

Drennan DG, Hosler KC, Francis M, Weaver D, Aneshansley E, Beckman G, Johnson CH, Cristina CM (2006) Standardized evaluation and rating of biofilters. II. Manufacturer's and user's perspective. Aquac Eng 34:403—416.

Duncan IJ (2005) Science-based assessment of animal welfare: farm animals. Rev Sci Tech 24:483—492

Ebeling JM, Timmons MB (2012) Recirculating aquaculture systems. In: Tidwell JH (ed) Aquaculture production systems. Wiley, Oxford

Ebeling JM, Timmons MB, Bisogni JJ (2006) Engineering analysis of the stoichiometry of photoautotrophic, autotrophic, and heterotrophic removal of ammonia-nitrogen in aquaculture systems. Aquaculture 257:346—358.

EIFAC/ICES (1980) World conference on flow-through and recirculation systems, Stavanger, Norway 1980 and the 1981 World Aquaculture conference, Venice, Italy

Ellis T, Scott AP, Bromage N, North B, Porter M (2001) What is stocking density? Trout News 32:35—37

Emparanza EJM (2009) Problems affecting nitrification in commercial RAS with fixed-bed biofilters for salmonids in Chile. Aquac Eng 41:91—96. 2009.06.010

Eshchar M, Mozes N, Fediuk M (2003) Carbon dioxide removal rate by aeration devices in marine fish tanks. Isr J Aquac-Bamidgeh 55:79—85

FAO (2001) Integrated agriculture-aquaculture: a primer 407. ISBN 9251045992

FAO (2004) Aquaculture management and conservation service (FIMA) 2004—2018. Cultured aquatic species information programme. Carassius carassius. Cultured aquatic species information programme. Weimin M. Accessed 5 Jan 2018

Fast AW, Tan EC, Stevens DF, Olson JC, Qin J, Barclay DK (1999) Paddlewheel aerator oxygen transfer efficiencies at three salinities. Aquac Eng 19:99—103.

FAWC (2014) Farm animal welfare committee. Welfare of farmed fish. Available on www.defra. Accessed 18 Jan 2018

Fernandes P, Pedersen L-F, Pedersen PB (2015) Microscreen effects on water quality in replicated recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquac Eng 65:17—26. 2014.10.007

Fox BK, Tamaru CS, Hollyer J et al (2012) A preliminary study of microbial water quality related to food safety in recirculating aquaponic fish and vegetable production systems. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Food Safety and Technology

Gehlert G, Griese M, Schlachter M, Schulz C (2018) Analysis and optimisation of dynamic facility ventilation in recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquac Eng 80:1—10. aquaeng.2017.11.003

Gendel Y, Lahav O (2013) A novel approach for ammonia removal from fresh-water recirculated aquaculture systems, comprising ion exchange and electrochemical regeneration. Aquac Eng 52:27—38.

Gomez RC (2011) Integrated fish farming systems. Available at: templates/FCIT/Meetings/WorldWaterDay2011/5-integratedaquaculture.pdf. Accessed 12 Feb 2018.

Gonçalves AA, Gagnon GA (2011) Ozone application in recirculating aquaculture system: an overview. Ozone Sci Eng 33:345—367.

Good C, Davidson J, Welsh C, Snekvik K, Summerfelt S (2011) The effects of ozonation on performance, health and welfare of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in low-exchange water recirculation aquaculture systems. Aquac Eng 44:97—102. 2011.04.003

Good C, Davidson J, Earley RL, Lee E, Summerfelt S (2014) The impact of water exchange rate and treatment processes on water-borne hormones in recirculation aquaculture systems containing sexually maturing Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. J Aquac Res Development 5:260.

Good C, Davidson J, Earley RL, Styga J, Summerfelt S (2017) The effects of ozonation on select waterborne steroid hormones in reicirculation aquaculture systems containing sexually mature Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Aquac Eng 79:9—16. 004

Good C, Davidson J, Terjesen BF, Talke H, Kolarevic J, Baeverfjord G, Summerfelt S (2018) The effects of long-term 20mg/l carbon dioxide exposure on the health and performance of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts in water recirculation aquaculture systems. Aquac Eng 81:1—9.

Gorle JMR, Terjesen BF, Mota VC, Summerfelt S (2018) Water velocity in commercial RAS culture tanks for Atlantic salmon smolt production. Aquac Eng 81:89—100

Gornati R, Papis E, Rimoldi S, Terova G, Saroglia M, Bernardini G (2004) Rearing density influences the expression of stress-related genes in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Gene 341:111—118.

Graber A, Antenen N, Junge R (2014) The multifunctional aquaponic system at ZHAW used as research and training lab. In: Maček Jerala M, Maček MA (eds) Conference VIVUS: transmission of innovations, knowledge and practical experience into everyday practice, Strahinj, Slovenia

Grady CPL, Lim HC (1980) Biological wastewater treatment: theory and applications. Marcel Dekker, New York

Grimsrud KM, Nielsen HM, Olesen I (2013) Households' willingness-to-pay for improved fish welfare in breeding programs for farmed Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 372—375:19—27. https://

Gutierrez-Wing MT, Malone RF (2006) Biological filters in aquaculture: trends and research directions for freshwater and marine applications. Aquac Eng 34:163—171. 1016/j.aquaeng.2005.08.003

Guttman L, Rijn J (2008) Identification of conditions underlying production of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol in a recirculating system. Aquaculture 279:85—91. j.aquaculture.2008.03.047

Hammock D, Huang CC, Mort G, Swinehart JH (2003) The effect of humic acid on the uptake of mercury(II), cadmium(II), and zinc(II) by Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) eggs. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 44:83—88.

Hulata G, Simon Y (2011) An overview on desert aquaculture in Israel. In: Crespi V, Lovatelli, A (eds) Aquaculture in desert and arid lands: development constraints and opportunities. FAO technical workshop. Hermosillo, Mexico. FAO fisheries and aquaculture proceedings no. 20. Rome, FAO. 6—9 July 2010, pp 85—112

Huntingford FA, Adams C, Braithwaite VA, Kadri S, Pottinger TG, Sandøe P, Turnbull JF (2006) Current issues in fish welfare. J Fish Biol 68:332—372. 2006.001046.x

Jorgensen EH, Christiansen JS, Jobling M (1993) Effects of stocking density on food intake, growth performance and oxygen consumption in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Aquaculture 110:191—204.

Kesarcodi-Watson A, Kaspar H, Lategan MJ, Gibson L (2008) Probiotics in aquaculture: the need, principles and mechanisms of action and screening processes. Aquaculture 274:1—14. https://

Klas S, Mozes N, Lahav O (2006) Development of a single-sludge denitrification method for nitrate removal from RAS effluents: lab-scale results vs. model prediction. Aquaculture 259:342—353.

Krom MD, van Rijn J (1989) Water quality processes in fish culture systems: processes, problems, and possible solutions. In: de Pauw N, Jaspers E, Ackerfors H, Wilkins N (eds) Aquaculture-a biotechnology in progress, vol 2. European aquaculture society, Bredene, pp 1091—1111

Kucuk H, Midilli A, Özdemir A, Çakmak E, Dincer I (2010) Exergetic performance analysis of a recirculating aquaculture system. Energy Convers Manag 51(5):1033—1043. 1016/j.enconman.2009.12.007

Lahav O, Ben Asher R, Gendel Y (2015) Potential applications of indirect electrochemical ammonia oxidation within the operation of freshwater and saline-water recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquac Eng 65:55—64.

Lee J (2014) Separation of fine organic particles by a low-pressure hydrocyclone (LPH). Aquac Eng 63:32—38.

Lekang OI (2013) Aquaculture engineering, 2nd edn. Wiley, Ames

Leonard N, Blancheton JP, Guiraud JP (2000) Populations of heterotrophic bacteria in an experimental recirculating aquaculture system. Aquac Eng 22:109—120. S0144-8609(00)00035-2

Leonard N, Guiraud JP, Gasset E, Cailleres JP, Blancheton JP (2002) Bacteria and nutrients — nitrogen and carbon — in a recirculating system for sea bass production. Aquac Eng 26:111—127.

Lewis WM, Wehr LW (1976) A fish-rearing system incorporating cages, water circulation, and sewage removal. Prog Fish Cult 38(2):78—81.[78: AFSICW]2.0.CO;2

Lewis WM, Yopp JH, Schramm HL Jr, Brandenburg AM (1978) Use of hydroponics to maintain quality of recirculated water in a fish culture system. Trans Am Fish Soc 107(1):92—99. https://\92:UOHTMQ\2.0.CO;2

Li X, Przybyla C, Triplet S, Liu Y, Blancheton JP (2015) Long-term effects of moderate elevation of oxidation-reduction potential on European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquac Eng 64:15—19.

Liu Y, Rosten T, Henriksen K, Hognes E, Summerfelt S, Vinci B (2016) Comparative economic performance and carbon footprint of two farming models for producing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): land-based closed containment system in freshwater and open net pen in seawater. Aquac Eng 71:1—12

Livingstone DR (2003) Oxidative stress in aquatic organisms in relation to pollution and aquaculture. Rev Med Vet-Toulouse 154:427—430

Loyless JC, Malone RE (1998) Evaluation of air-lift pump capabilities for water delivery, aeration, and degasification for application to recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquac Eng 18 (2):117—133.

Malone RF, Pfeiffer TJ (2006) Rating fixed film nitrifying biofilters used in recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquac Eng 34:389—402.

Manan H, Moh JHZ, Kasan NA et al (2017) Identification of biofloc microscopic composition as the natural bioremediation in zero water exchange of pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, cultured in close hatchery system. Appl Water Sci 7:2437—2446. s13201-016-0421-4

Mancinelli RL (1996) The nature of nitrogen: an overview. Life Support Biosph Sci 3(1—2):17—24

Martins CIM, Eding EH, Schneider O, Rasmussen R, Olesen B, Plesner L, Verreth JAJ (2005) Recirculation aquaculture systems in Europe. CONSENSUS. Oostende, Belgium, Consensus working group. Eur Aquacult Soc 31

Martins CIM, Ochola D, Ende SSW, Eding EH, Verreth JAJ (2010a) Is growth retardation present in Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in low water exchange recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquaculture 298:43—50.

Martins CIM, Eding EH, Verdegem MCJ, Heinsbroek LTN, Schneider O, Blancheton JP, Roque d'Orbcastel E, Verreth JAJ (2010b) New developments in recirculating aquaculture systems in Europe: a perspective on environmental sustainability. Aquac Eng 43(3):83—93. 10.1016/j.aquaeng.2010.09.002

Martins CIM, Eding EH, Verreth JAJ (2011) Stressing fish in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS): does stress induced in one group of fish affect the feeding motivation of other fish sharing the same RAS? Aquac Res 42:1378—1384. 02728.x

Martins CIM, Galhardo L, Noble C et al (2012) Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish. Fish Physiol Biochem 38:17.

Masalo I (2008) Hydrodynamic characterization of aquaculture tanks and design criteria for improving self-cleaning properties. Ph.D thesis. Universitat Politechnica de Catalunya BARCELONATECH, Spain

Meinelt T, Paul A, Phan TM, Zwirnmann E, Krüger A, Wienke A, Steinberg CEW (2007) Reduction in vegetative growth of the water mold Saprolegnia parasitica (Coker) by humic substances of different qualities. Aquat Toxicol 83:93—103. 2007.03.013

Meinelt T, Kroupova H, Stüber A, Rennert B, Wienke A, Steinberg CEW (2010) Can dissolved aquatic humic substances reduce the toxicity of ammonia and nitrite in recirculating aquaculture systems? Aquaculture 306:378—383.

Merchie G, Lavens P, Verreth J, Ollevier F, Nelis H, DeLeenheer A, Storch V, Sorgeloos P (1997) The effect of supplemental ascorbic acid in enriched live food for Clarias gariepinus larvae at start feeding. Aquaculture 151:245—258.

Michaud L, Blancheton JP, Bruni V, Piedrahita R (2006) Effect of particulate organic carbon on heterotrophic bacterial populations and nitrification efficiency in biological filters. Aquac Eng 34:224—233.

Michaud L, Lo Giudice A, Troussellier M, Smedile F, Bruni V, Blancheton JP (2009) Phylogenetic characterization of the heterotrophic bacterial communities inhabiting a marine recirculating aquaculture system. J Appl Microbiol 107:1935—1946. 2009.04378.x

Michaud L, Lo Giudice A, Interdonato F, Triplet S, Ying L, Blancheton JP (2014) C/N ratioinduced structural shift of bacterial communities inside lab-scale aquaculture biofilters. Aquac Eng 58:77—87.

Montero D, Izquierdo MS, Tort L, Robaina L, Vergara JM (1999) High stocking density produces crowding stress altering some physiological and biochemical parameters in gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata, juveniles. Fish Physiol Biochem 20:53—60. A:1007719928905

Moran D (2010) Carbon dioxide degassing in fresh and saline water. I: degassing performance of a cascade column. Aquac Eng 43:29—36.

Munguia-Fragozo P, Alatorre-Jacome O, Rico-Garcia E et al (2015) Perspective for aquaponic systems: "Omic" technologies for microbial community analysis. Biomed Res Int 2015, Article ID 480386, 10 pages.

Murray RG, Watson SW (1965) Structure of Nitrocystis oceanus and comparison with Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter. J Bacteriol 89(6):1594—1609

Murray F, Bostock J, Fletcher M (2014) Review of RAS technologies and their commercial application. Final report. Available at

Naegel LCA (1977) Combined production of fish and plants in recirculating water. Aquaculture 10 (1):17—24.

Noga E (2010) Fish disease: diagnosis and treatment, 2nd edn. Wiley, Ames

Oca J, Masalo I (2012) Flow pattern in aquaculture circular tanks: influence of flow rate, water depth, and water inlet & outlet features. Aquac Eng 52:65—72

Olesen I, Alfnes F, Bensze Røra M, Kolstad K (2010) Eliciting consumers' willingness to pay for organic and welfare-labelled salmon in a non-hypothetical choice experiment. Livest Sci 127 (2—3):218—226.

Palm HW, Knaus U, Appelbaum S, Goddek S, Strauch SM, Vermeulen T, Haїssam JM, Kotzen B (2018) Towards commercial aquaponics: a review of systems, designs, scales and nomenclature. Aquac Int 26:813.

Papoutsoglou SE, Karakatsouli N, Batzina A, Papoutsoglou ES, Tsopelakos A (2008) Effect of Mozart's music stimulus on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) physiology under different light intensity in a recirculating water system. J Fish Biol 73:980—1004. j.1095-8649.2008.02001.x

Park J, Kim PK, Lim T, Daniels HV (2013) Ozonation in seawater recirculating systems for black seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii (Bleeker): effects on solids, bacteria, water clarity, and color. Aquac Eng 55:1—8.

Park J, Kim PK, Park S, Daniels HV (2015) Effects of two different ozone doses on total residual oxidants, nitrogen compounds and nitrification rate in seawater recirculating systems for black seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii (Bleeker). Aquac Eng 67:1—7.

Pedersen PB, von Ahnen M, Fernandes P, Naas C, Pedersen L-F, Dalsgaard J (2017) Particle surface area and bacterial activity in recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquac Eng 78A:18—23.

Peuranen S, Vuorinen PJ, Vuorinen M, Hollender A (1994) The effects of iron, humic acids and low pH on the gills and physiology of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Ann Zool Fenn 31:389—396

Pittmann T, Steinmetz H (2013) Development of a process to produce bioplastic at municipal wastewater treatment plants. Conference paper

Prosser JI (1989) Autotrophic nitrification in bacteria. Adv Microb Physiol 30:125—181

Randall DJ, Tsui TKN (2002) Ammonia toxicity in fish. Marine Poll Bull 45:17—23

Reiser S, Schroeder JP, Wuertz S, Kloas W, Hanel R (2010) Histological and physiological alterations in juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima, L.) exposed to sublethal concentrations of ozone-produced oxidants in ozonated seawater. Aquaculture 307:157—164. 1016/j.aquaculture.2010.07.007

Reiser S, Wuertz S, Schroeder JP, Kloas W, Hanel R (2011) Risks of seawater ozonation in recirculation aquaculture — effects of oxidative stress on animal welfare of juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima, L.). Aquat Toxicol 105:508—517. 004

Richardson LB, Burton DT, Block RM, Stavola AM (1983) Lethal and sublethal exposure and recovery effects of ozone-produced oxidants on adult white perch (Morone americana Gmelin). Water Res 17:205—213.

Ritola O, Lyytikainen T, Pylkko P, Molsa H, Lindstrom-Seppa P (2000) Glutathione-dependant defence system and monooxygenase enzyme activities in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) exposed to ozone. Aquaculture 185:219—233.

Ritola O, Livingstone DR, Peters LD, Lindstrom-Seppa P (2002) Antioxidant processes are affected in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to ozone and oxygen-supersaturated water. Aquaculture 210:1—9.

Rojas-Tirado P, Bovbjerg Pedersen P, Pedersen L-F (2017) Bacterial activity dynamics in the water phase during start-up of recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquac Eng 78A:24—31. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2016.09.004

Rosenthal H (1980) Recirculation systems in western Europe. World symposium on aquaculture in heated effluents and recirculation system, Stavanger, Institut für Kuesten- und Binnefischerei, Bundesforschungsanstalt Hamburg, BRD

Rosenthal H, Black EA (1993) Recirculation systems in aquaculture. In: Wang J-K (ed) Techniques for modem aquaculture. ASAE, St. Joseph, pp 284—294

Rurangwa E, Verdegem MCJ (2015) Microorganisms in recirculating aquaculture systems and their management. Rev Aquac 7:117—130.

Rusten B, Eikebrokk B, Ulgenes Y, Lygren E (2006) Design and operations of the Kaldnes moving bed biofilm reactors. Aquac Eng 34:322—331.

Schmautz Z, Graber A, Jaenicke S, Goesmann A, Junge R, Smits THM (2017) Microbial diversity in different compartments of an aquaponics system. Arch Microbiol 199:613. 1007/s00203-016-1334-1

Schreier HJ, Mirzoyan N, Saito K (2010) Microbial diversity of biological filters in recirculating aquaculture systems. Curr Opin Biotechnol 21:318—325. 03.011

Schroeder JP, Croot PL, Von Dewitz B, Waller U, Hanel R (2011) Potential and limitations of ozone for the removal of ammonia, nitrite, and yellow substances in marine recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquac Eng 45:35—41.

Sharrer MJ, Summerfelt ST, Bullock GL, Gleason LE, Taeuber J (2005) Inactivation of bacteria using ultraviolet irradiation in a recirculating salmonid culture system. Aquac Eng 33:135—149

Singh S, Marsh LS (1996) Modelling thermal environment of a recirculating aquaculture facility. Aquaculture 139:11—18.

Sirsat S, Neal J (2013) Microbial profile of soil-free versus insoil grown lettuce and intervention methodologies to combat pathogen surrogates and spoilage microorganisms on lettuce. Foods 2 (4):488—498.

Somerville C, Cohen M, Pantanella E, Stankus A, Lovatelli A (2014) Small-scale aquaponic food production: integrated fish and plant farming. In: FAO fisheries and aquaculture technical paper food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, p 262

Stevenson FJ (1994) Humus Chemistry: genesis, composition, reactions, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, p 496.

Suhr KI, Pedersen LF, Nielsen JL (2014) End-of-pipe single-sludge denitrification in pilot-scale recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquac Eng 62:28—35.

Summerfelt ST (2003) Ozonation and UV irradiation — An introduction and examples of current applications. Aquac Eng 28:21—36.

Summerfelt ST (2006) Design and management of conventional fluidized-sand biofilters. Aquac Eng 34:275—302.

Summerfelt ST, Hochheimer JN (1997) Review of Ozone processes and applications as an oxidizing agent in Aquaculture. Progress Fish-Culturist 59:94—105. 1548-8640(1997)059\0094:ROOPAA\2.3.CO;2

Summerfelt S, Davidson JW, Waldrop TB, Tsukuda S, Bebak-Williams J (2004) A partial-reuse system for coldwater aquaculture. Aquac Eng 157—181. 048

Summerfelt ST, Sharrer MJ, Tsukuda SM, Gearheart M (2009) Process requirements for achieving full-flow disinfection of recirculating water using ozonation and UV irradiation. Aquac Eng 40:17—27.

Summerfelt ST, Zulke A, Kolarevic J, Megard Reiten BK, Selset R, Guiterrez X, Terjesen BF (2015) The effects of alkalinity on ammonia removal, carbon dioxide stripping, and pH in semicommercial scale water recirculating aquaculture systems operated with moving bed bioreactors. Aquac Eng 65:46—54.

Summerfelt ST, Mathisen F, Buran Holan A, Terjesen BF (2016) Survey of large circular and octagonal tanks operated at Norwegian commercial smolt and post-smolt sites. Aquac Eng 74:105—110.

Tal Y, Watts JEM, Schreier HJ (2006) Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (Anammox) bacteria and associated activity in fixed-film biofilters of a marine recirculating aquaculture system. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:2896—2904.

Tal Y, Schreier HJ, Sowers KR, Stubblefield JD, Place AR, Zohar Y (2009) Environmentally sustainable land-based marine aquaculture. Aquaculture 286:28—35. aquaculture.2008.08.043

Tango MS, Gagnon GA (2003) Impact of ozonation on water quality in marine recirculation systems. Aquac Eng 29:125—137.

Terhune JM, Friars GW, Bailey JK, O'Flynn FM (1990) Noise levels may influence Atlantic salmon smolting rates in tanks. J Fish Biol 37:185—197. 1990.tb05939.x

Timmons MB, Ebeling JM (2010) Recirculating aquaculture, 2nd edn. Cayuga Aqua Ventures, Ithaca

Timmons MB, Losordo TM (1994) Aquaculture water reuse systems — engineering design and management. Elsevier, Amsterdam

Tomita-Yokotani K, Anilir S, Katayama N, Hashimoto H, Yamashita M (2009) Space agriculture for habitation on mars and sustainable civilization on earth. Recent Adv Space Technol:68—69.

Tort L, Rotllant J, Liarte C, Acerete L, Hernandez A, Ceulemans S, Coutteau P, Padros F (2004) Effects of temperature decrease on feeding rates, immune indicators and histopathological changes of gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata fed with an experimental diet. Aquaculture 229:55—65.

Turnbull JF, Kadri S (2007) Safeguarding the many guises of farmed fish welfare. Dis Aquat Org 75:173—182.

Vadstein O, Mo TA, Bergh Ø (2004) Microbial interactions, prophylaxis and diseases. In: Moksness E, Kjørsvik E, Olsen Y (eds) Culture of cold-water marine fishes. Blackwell

Publishing, Bath, pp 28—72. van Rijn J (1996) The potential for integrated biological treatment systems in recirculating fish culture—-a review. Aquaculture 139(3—4):181—201.

01151-X van Rijn J (2013) Waste treatment in recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquac Eng 53:49—56.

van Rijn J, Nussinovitch A (1997) An empirical model for predicting degradation of organic solids in fish culture systems based on short-term observations. Aquaculture 154(2):173—179. https://

van Rijn J, Rivera G (1990) Aerobic and anaerobic biofiltration in an aquaculture unit: nitrite accumulation as a result of nitrification and denitrification. Aquac Eng 9:1—18

van Rijn J, Tal Y, Schreier HJ (2006) Denitrification in recirculating systems: theory and applications. Aquac Eng 34(3):364—376

Vazzana M, Cammarata M, Cooper EL, Parrinello N (2002) Confinement stress in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) depresses peritoneal leukocyte cytotoxicity. Aquaculture 210:231—243.

Veerapen JP, Lowry BJ, Couturier MF (2005) Design methodology for the swirl separator. Aquac Eng 33:21—45.

Verreth JAJ, Eding EH (1993) European farming industry of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) facts and figures. J World Aquacult Soc 24:6—13

Volpato GL, Goncalves-de-Freitas E, Fernandes-de-Castilho M (2007) Insights into the concept of fish welfare. Dis Aquat Org 75:165—171.

Wagner EJ, Bosakowski T, Miller SA (1995) Evaluation of the absorption efficiency of the Low Head Oxygenation System. Aquac Eng 14:49—57. P4426-C

Wold P-A, Holan AB, Øie G, Attramadal K, Bakke I, Vadstein O, Leiknes TO (2014) Effects of membrane filtration on bacterial number and microbial diversity in marine recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) production. Aquaculture 422—423:69—77.

Wong KB, Piedrahita RH (2000) Settling velocity characterization of aquacultural solids. Aquac Eng 21:233—246.

Wysocki LE, Davidson JW III, Smith ME, Frankel AS, Ellison TE, Mazik PM, Popper AN, Bebak J (2007) The effects of aquaculture production noise on hearing, growth, and disease resistance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture 272:687—697. culture.2007.07.225

Yamin G, Borisover M, Cohen E, van Rijn J (2017a) Accumulation of humic-like and proteinaceous dissolved organic matter in zero-discharge aquaculture systems as revealed by fluorescence EEM spectroscopy. Water Res 108:412—421.

Yamin G, Falk R, Avtalion RR, Shoshana N, Ofek T, Smirnov R, Rubenstein G, van Rijn J (2017b) The protective effect of humic-rich substances on atypical Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). J Fish Dis 40(12):1783—1790.

Yamin G, Zilberg D, Levy G, van Rijn J (2017c) The protective effect of humic-rich substances from monogenean parasites infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Aquaculture 479:487—489.

Yildiz HY, Robaina L, Pirhonen J, Mente E, Domínguez D, Parisi G (2017) Fish welfare in aquaponic systems: its relation to water quality with an emphasis on feed and faeces—-a review. Water 9(1):13.

Yogev U, Sowers KR, Mozes N, Gross A (2016) Nitrogen and carbon balance in a novel near-zero exchange saline recirculating aquaculture system. Aquaculture 467:118—126

Zeng Q, Tian X, Wang L (2017) Genetic adaptation of microbial populations present in highintensity catfish production systems with therapeutic oxytetracycline treatment. Sci Rep 7:17491.

Zhu S, Chen S (2002) The impact of temperature on nitrification rate in fixed film biofilters. Aquac Eng 26(4):221—237.

Zou Y, Hu Z, Zhang J, Xie H, Guimbaud C, Fang Y (2016) Effects of pH on nitrogen transformations in media-based aquaponics. Bioresour Technol 210:81—87. biortech.2015.12.079

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.