AnnouncingFAO Manual on Aquaponics available now in resources!
FeaturesPricingSupportSign In

Chapter 18 Commercial Aquaponics: A Long Road Ahead

5 months ago

11 min read

Maja Turnšek, Rolf Morgenstern, Iris Schröter, Marcus Mergenthaler, Silke Hüttel, and Michael Leyer

Abstract Aquaponic systems are often designated as sustainable food production systems that are still facing various challenges, especially when they are considered as a commercial endeavour that needs to compete on the market. The early stages of the aquaponics industry have witnessed a number of unrealistic statements about the economic advantageousness of aquaponics. This chapter deals with these topics and discusses them critically. The latest scientific literature and current personal experiences of European commercial aquaponics farmers are taken into account on three levels: The horticulture side of production, the aquaculture side of production and the early data on the market response to aquaponics, emphasising the marketing issues and public acceptance of aquaponics. In summary, the chapter does not provide an "off-the-peg" solution to evaluate the economic performance of a particular aquaponics system. Instead it provides a broad database that enables an estimation of the efficiency of a planned system more realistically, pointing to challenges that the commercial aquaponics early adopters faced that are important lessons for future aquaponic endeavours, particularly in Europe.

Keywords Commercial aquaponics · Aquaponics economic myths · Marketing of aquaponics

Contents


Authors Maja Turnšek and Rolf Morgenstern have equally contributed to this chapter.


M. Turnšek

Faculty of Tourism, University of Maribor, Brežice, Slovenia

R. Morgenstern · I. Schröter · M. Mergenthaler

Department of Agriculture, University of Applied Sciences of South Westphalia, Soest, Germany

S. Hüttel

Institute of Food and Resource Economics, Chair of Production Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Rheinische Friedrichs-Wilhelms Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany

M. Leyer

Institute of Business Administration, Rostock University, Rostock, Germany e-mail:

© The Author(s) 2019 453

S. Goddek et al. (eds.), Aquaponics Food Production Systems, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-15943-6_18


References

ACAC Association of Commercial Aquaponics Companies (2018) 10 Dec 2018. https://euaquaponicshub.wordpress.com/association-of-commercial-aquaponics-companies-acac/

Adler PR, Harper JK, Wade EM (2000) Economic analysis of an aquaponic system for the integrated production of rainbow trout and plants. Int J Recirculating Aquac 1(15):15—34

Baker AAC (2010) Preliminary development and evaluation of an aquaponic system for the American Insular Pacific. [Honolulu]:[University of Hawaii at Manoa], [December 2010]

Bailey DS, Ferrarezi RS (2017) Valuation of vegetable crops produced in the UVI Commercial Aquaponic System. Aquacult Rep 7:77—82

Bailey DS, Rakocy JE, Cole WM, Shultz KA, St Croix U (1997) Economic analysis of a commercial-scale aquaponic system for the production of Tilapia and lettuce. In: Tilapia aquaculture: proceedings of the fourth international symposium on Tilapia in aquaculture, Orlando, Florida, pp 603—612

BORISplus (2018) Amtliche Informationen zum Immobilienmarkt in NRW. 16 Mar 2018. https://www.boris.nrw.de/borisplus/?lang=en

Bosma R (2016) The economic feasibility of aquaponics: a post-hoc cost-benefit analysis of investing in a fish vegetable farm near Dumaguete, Philippines. 11th Asian Fisheries and Aquaculture Forum, Bangkok, 2016-8-6/2016-8-6, 10 Dec 2018. http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/512805

Bosma RH, Lacambra L, Landstra Y, Perini C, Poulie J, Schwaner MJ, Yin Y (2017) The financial feasibility of producing fish and vegetables through aquaponics. Aquacult Eng 78:146—154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2017.07.002

Bunyaviroch C (2013) Aquaponic systems in Puerto Rico: assessing their economic viability. PhD dissertation, Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Chryssohoidis GM, Krystallis A (2005) Organic consumers' personal values research: testing and validating the list of values (LOV) scale and implementing a value-based segmentation task. Food Qual Pref 16:585—599

Destatis (2015) Statistisches Bundesamt. https://www.destatis.de/. Accessed 10 Nov 2015

Engle CR (2015) Economics of aquaponics. SRAC Publication — Southern Regional Aquaculture Center. No.5006. 15 Feb 2018 https://srac.tamu.edu/serveFactSheet/282

Goddek S, Delaide B, Mankasingh U, Ragnarsdottir K, Jijakli H, Thorarinsdottir R (2015) Challenges of sustainable and commercial aquaponics. Sustainability 7:4199—4224. https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044199

Goddek S, Espinal C, Delaide B, Jijakli M, Schmautz Z, Wuertz S, Keesman K (2016) Navigating towards decoupled aquaponic systems: a system dynamics design approach. Water 8:303. https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070303

Graber A, Junge R (2009) Aquaponic Systems: Nutrient recycling from fish wastewater by vegetable production. Desalination 246:147—156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2008.03.048

Hjelmar U (2011) Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices. Appetite 56:336—334

IndustryARC (2012) Aquaponics market by equipment (grow lights, pumps, valves, greenhouse, water heaters, aeration systems); Components (rearing tanks, settling basins, sump, biofilter, hydroponics); End user (Commercial, home, community) Forecast (2013—2018), 24 Mar 2018. https://www.slideshare.net/rajesh193k/aquaponics-market-size-and-forecast-2018

IndustryARC (2017) Aquaponics market by equipment (Grow lights, pumps, valves, greenhouse, water heaters, aeration systems); Components (Rearing tanks, settling basins, sump, biofilter, hydroponics); End user (Commercial, home, community) — Forecast (2015—2021), 1 Feb 2018. http://industryarc.com/Report/22/global-commercial-aquaponics-market.html

Karimanzira D, Keesman KJ, Kloas W, Baganz D, Rauschenbach T (2016) Dynamic modeling of the INAPRO aquaponic system. Aquacult Eng 75:29—45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng. 2016.10.004

Knaus U, Palm HW (2017) Effects of the fish species choice on vegetables in aquaponics under spring-summer conditions in northern Germany (Mecklenburg Western Pomerania). Aquaculture 473:62—73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2017.01.020

Korn A, Feucht Y, Zander K, Janssen M, Hamm U (2014): Entwicklung einer

Kommunikationsstrategie für nachhaltige Aquakulturprodukte. 29 Oct 2017. http://orgprints.org/28279/1/28279-11NA040-066-uni-kassel-ti-2014-fischlabelling.pdf

Körner O, Holst N (2017) An open-source greenhouse modelling platform. Acta Horticult 241—248. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2017.1154.32

Körner O, Gutzmann E, Kledal PR (2017) A dynamic model simulating the symbiotic effects in aquaponic systems. Acta Horticult:309—316. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2017.1170.37

KTBL (2009) Gartenbau: Produktionsverfahren planen und kalkulieren. Kuratorium für Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft. KTBL

Laidlaw J (2013) From Innovation to sustainability: Surviving five years as an urban aquaponics social enterprise. 13 Feb 2018. http://citiesprogramme.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/ laidlawfrominnovation_to-sustainability-web.pdf

Levin IP, Schneider SL, Gaeth GJ (1998) All frames are not created equal: a typology and critical analysis of framing effects. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 76(2):149—188

Lewis WM, Yopp JH, Schramm HL, Brandenburg AM (1978) Use of hydroponics to maintain quality of recirculated water in a fish culture system. Trans Am Fish Soc 107:92—99. https://doi. org/10.1577/1548-8659(1978)107

Leyer M, Hüttel S (2017) Performance analysis with DEA, process mining and business process simulation on a livestock process. In: Proceedings of the international multiconference of engineers and computer scientists, 13 Dec 2018. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2d2d/ ef068539537127feed0080655cdba4266ce6.pdf

Lohrberg F, Lička L, Scazzosi L, Timpe A (eds) (2016) Urban agriculture Europe. Jovis, Berlin

Love DC, Fry JP et al (2014) An international survey of aquaponics practitioners. PLoS One 9(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102662

Love DC, Fry JP, Li X, Hill ES, Genello L, Semmens K, Thompson RE (2015) Commercial aquaponics production and profitability: findings from an international survey. Aquaculture 435:67—74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.09.023

Mackowiak C, Owens L, Hinkle C, Prince R (1989) Continuous hydroponic wheat production using a recirculating system. NASA Technical Memorandum TM 102784. 3 Mar 2018. https:// ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19900009537.pdf

Medina M, Jayachandran K, Bhat MG, Deoraj A (2015) Assessing plant growth, water quality and economic effects from application of a plant-based aquafeed in a recirculating aquaponic system. Aquacult Intl 24(1):415—427. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-015-9934-3

Mergenthaler M, Lorleberg W (2016) Voruntersuchung zur Zahlungsbereitschaft für frischen und geräucherten europäischen Wels aus einer Aquaponik-Pilotanlage. In: Notizen aus der Forschung, Fachbereich Agrarwirtschaft, Soest,14/2016

Miličić V, Thorarinsdottir R, Santos M, Hančič M (2017) Commercial aquaponics approaching the European market: to consumers' perceptions of aquaponics products in Europe. Water 9:80. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020080

Morgenstern R, Lorleberg W, Biernatzki R, Boelhauve M, Braun, J., Haberlah-Korr, V., 2017. Pilotstudie "Nachhaltige Aquaponik-Erzeugung für Nordrhein-Westfalen." Fachhochschule Südwestfalen, Soest. ISBN:978-3-940956-66-8

Naegel LCA (1977) Combined production of fish and plants in recirculating water. Aquaculture 10:17—24. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(77)90029-1

Orsini F, Dubbeling M, de Zeeuw H, Gianquinto G (2017) Rooftop urban agriculture. Springer

Pakseresht A, McFadden BR, Lagerkvist CJ (2017) Consumer acceptance of food biotechnology based on policy context and upstream acceptance: evidence from an artefactual field experiment. Eur Rev Agricult Econom 44:757—780. https://doi.org/10.1093/erae/jbx016

Palm HW, Knaus U, Appelbaum S, Goddek S, Strauch SM, Vermeulen T, Haїssam Jijakli M, Kotzen B (2018) Towards commercial aquaponics: a review of systems, designs, scales and nomenclature. Aquacult Intl. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-018-0249-z

Peattie K (1992) Green marketing: The M and E handbook series. Pitman Longman Group, London

Petrea SM, Coadă MT, Cristea V, Dediu L, Cristea D, Rahoveanu AT, Zugravu AG, Rahoveanu MMT, Mocuta DN (2016) A comparative cost — effectiveness analysis in different tested aquaponic systems. Agricult Agricult Sci Proc 10:555—565. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aaspro. 2016.09.034

Pollard G, Ward J, Koth B (2017) Aquaponics in urban agriculture: social acceptance and urban food planning. Horticulturae 3:39. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae3020039

Quagrainie KK, Flores RMV, Kim H-J, McClain V (2018) Economic analysis of aquaponics and hydroponics production in the U.S. Midwest. J Appl Aquacult 30:1—14

Savidov N, Brooks A (2004) Evaluation and development of aquaponics production and product market capabilities in Alberta. Crop Diversification Centre South, Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development

Schröter I, Mergenthaler M (2018a) Eye-tracking als neuroökonomische Methode zur Erfassung von Wahrnehmungsprozessen von Informationen über Aquaponik. Notizen aus der Forschung Nr. 2/2018. Fachbereich Agrarwirtschaft, Soest

Schröter I, Mergenthaler M (2018b) Technik oder Natur: Wahrnehmung und Bewertung von Aquaponik-Varianten. Notizen aus der Forschung Nr. 1/2018. Fachbereich Agrarwirtschaft, Soest

Schröter I, Hüppe J-H, Lorleberg W, Mergenthaler M (2017a) Einflussfaktoren auf die Zahlungsbereitschaft für Fisch nach dem Besuch einer Aquaponikanlage. In: Notizen aus der Forschung, Fachbereich Agrarwirtschaft, Soest.71

Schröter I, Hüppe J-H, Lorleberg W, Mergenthaler M (2017b) Kenntnisse über Aquaponik und Zahlungsbereitschaft für Fisch nach dem Besuch einer Polykulturanlage mit Aquaponik. In: Notizen aus der Forschung, Fachbereich Agrarwirtschaft, Soest. 70

Schröter I, Lorleberg W, Mergenthaler M (2017c) Erwartungen potentieller Konsumenten an Fischprodukte aus Aquaponik in einer Sondierungsstichprobe. In: Notizen aus der Forschung, Fachbereich Agrarwirtschaft, Soest,69

Schuetz K, Voigt L, Mergenthaler M (2018) Regionale Lebensmittel zwischen Anspruch und Wirklichkeit: Verbrauchererwartungen, Begriffs- und Qualitätsverständnisse regionaler Vermarktungsinitiativen und verbraucherpolitische Implikationen. KVF working paper

Smeets PJ (2010) Expedition Agroparks; Research by Design Into Sustainable Development and Agriculture in the Network Society. Wageningen Academic Publications

Smil V (2008) Energy in nature and society: general energetics of complex systems. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA

Specht K, Sanyé-Mengual E (2017) Risks in urban rooftop agriculture: Assessing stakeholders' perceptions to ensure efficient policymaking. Environ Sci Policy 69:13—21. https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.envsci.2016.12.001

Specht K, Weith T, Swoboda K, Siebert R (2016) Socially acceptable urban agriculture businesses. Agron Sustain Dev 36(1):17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-016-0355-0

Tamin M, Harun A, Estim A, Saufie S, Obong S (2015) Consumer Acceptance towards Aquaponic

Products. IOSR J Bus Manage (IOSR-JBM) 17:49—64. https://doi.org/10.9790/487X-17824964 Thorarinsdottir RI (2015) Aquaponics guidelines, University of Iceland: Iceland. Available online: http://skemman.is/en/stream/get/1946/23343/52997/1/Guidelines_Aquaponics_20151112.pdf

Tokunaga K, Tamaru C, Ako H, Leung P (2015) Economics of small-scale commercial aquaponics in Hawaii. J World Aquacult Soc 46:20—32

Villarroel (2017) Map. Aquaponics Map (COST FA1305). https://www.google.com/maps/d/u/0/viewer?ll=35.35294037658608%2C0.45745135072172616&z=4&mid=1bjUUbCtUfE_BCgaAf7AbmxyCpT0. Accessed 8 Sep 2018

Villarroel M, Junge R, Komives T, König B, Plaza I, Bittsánszky A, Joly A (2016) Survey of Aquaponics in Europe. Water 8:468. https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100468

Vogt L, Schütz K, Mergenthaler M, (2016) Regionalisierung von Lieferketten in der Ernährungswirtschaft—Herausforderungen und Ansatzpunkte

Zugravu AG, Rahoveanu MMT, Rahoveanu AT, Khalel MS, Ibrahim MAR (2016) The perception of aquaponics products in Romania. Risk Contempo Econom 3:525—530

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

image-20200929112107029