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The case studies presented in this document were selected by the FAO Small-Scale Fisheries Task Force through a competitive selection process. Case studies were selected based on the perceived replicability of initiatives by relevant actors, including national administrations, NGOs, CSOs, private enterprises, development agencies, intergovernmental bodies, and others. To facilitate this universal applicability, it was important to ensure geographic diversity and broad coverage of the recommendations in Chapter 7 of the SSF Guidelines.
The work presented here focuses on ongoing and recently concluded activities by various actors including FAO, NGOs, CSOs, universities and regional organizations. The case studies provide an opportunity to examine and analyse specific issues in more detail with a view to creating new insights and informing new activities moving forward.
Summary matrix: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 652
FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 652 case studies SSF Guidelines paragraphs on value chains, post-harvest and trade 7.1 ...ensure that post- harvest actors are part of relevant decision making processes (a), recognizing that there are sometimes unequal power relationships between value chain actors... and marginalized groups may require special support (b) 7.2 ...facilitate women’s participation (c) ...ensure that amenities and services appropriate for women are available as required (d) ...enable women to retain and enhance their livelihoods in the postharvest subsector (e) 7.3 ...provide and enable investments in appropriate infrastructures (f), organizational structures (g) and capacity development (h) to support the small- scale fisheries post- harvest subsector 7.4 ...recognize... associations of fishers and fish workers (i) and promote their adequate organizational and capacity development (j) in all stages of the value chain… and support marketing mechanisms (k) 7.5 ...avoid post- harvest losses and waste (l) and seek ways to create value addition (m), building also on existing traditional and local cost-efficient technologies, local innovations and culturally appropriate technology transfers 7.6 ...facilitate access to local, national, regional and international markets (n) and promote equitable and non- discriminatory trade (o) for small-scale fisheries products... support regional trade (p) in products from small-scale fisheries 7.7...ensure that promotion of international fish trade and export production do not adversely affect the nutritional needs of people (q) 7.8 …recognize that benefits from international trade should be fairly distributed (r) ...ensure that effective fisheries management systems are in place to prevent overexploitation driven by market demand (s) 7.9 ...ensure that adverse impacts by international trade on the environment, small-scale fisheries culture, livelihoods and special needs related to food security are equitably addressed (t) 7.10 …enable access to all relevant market and trade information for stakeholders in the small-scale fisheries value chain (u) ...Capacity development is also required so that all small-scale fisheries stakeholders... can ...benefit equitably from, opportunities (v) 1. The Central Fish Processors Association: Collective action by women in the Barbados flyingfish fishery a, b c, d, e g, h I, j 2. The Kodiak Jig Initiative: Ensuring viability of the small-boat jig fleet through market and policy solutions a, b f, g j, k 3. The FAO-Thiaroye processing technique: Facilitating social organization, empowering women, and creating market access opportunities in West Africa d, e i, j l, m n 4. Fish traders and processors network: Enhancing trade and market access for small-scale fisheries in the West Central Gulf of Guinea g, h n, o, p u, v 5. Seafood direct marketing: Supporting critical decision-making in Alaska and California f, g, h j, k n, o u, v 6. Fair Trade: Certification of a yellowfin tuna handline fishery in Indonesia i, j, k r, s t 7. Madagascar’s mud crab fishery: how fishers can earn more while catching less l, m n, o q 8. State-led fisheries development: Enabling access to resources and markets in the Maldives pole-and-line skipjack tuna fishery n, o q r, s t 9. Fishery Improvement Projects: In the context of small-scale fisheries value chains, post-harvest operations and trade a s
Case study 1: Pena et al. tell the story of The central fish processors association: collective action by women in the Barbados flyingfish fishery. Collective action consists primarily of enhancing cohesion and cooperation on important issues, building or restoring a sense of relevance or significance among marginalized groups, getting "a seat at the table" to develop pragmatic solutions, seeking greater accountability and transparency, and managing conflict. This method is fundamental for organizations seeking to effect positive change. Given the prominent role of women in the post-harvest segment of the flyingfish value chain in Barbados, the collective action of the women-led Central Fish Processors Association (CFPA) is particularly worthy of consideration. The case study analyses the formation and development of the CFPA and the benefits it has provided to its members in terms of their livelihoods and domestic lives, as well as to the flyingfish fishery more generally. It then highlights valuable lessons to inform others in fisheries post-harvest organizations.
Case study 2: Peterson et al. present The Kodiak Jig Initiative: Ensuring viability of the small-boat jig fleet through market and policy solutions. This case study outlines how jig fishers and partners successfully secured quota set-asides as a means to provide affordable entry-level opportunities for new and young fishers as well as those seeking more diversified access. The study further details efforts to establish niche markets for the quota set-asides, which resulted in significant increases in the dockside value of Pacific cod and rockfish for the small-boat fleet, and ultimately the establishment of the Kodiak Jig Seafoods brand. Combined, these policy and market-based efforts helped to ensure viable access and livelihood opportunities for the Kodiak jig fleet. The challenges and solutions presented can inform the development of approaches to ensure social, cultural and economic viability of fishing communities, and provide a textbook example of SDG Target 14.b -- "Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets" -- in action at the local level.
Case study 3: Ford et al. provide an overview of The FAO-Thiaroye processing technique: Facilitating social organization, empowering women, and creating market access opportunities in West Africa. The FAO-Thiaroye processing technique (FTT) is healthier and more efficient than other traditional methods of smoking fish. It produces products with an extended shelf life that meet international food safety standards, and helps reduce post-harvest losses during bumper harvests. This case study discusses challenges and opportunities related to deploying the FTT to improve smoked fish value chains in West Africa. Further, it explores the important and necessary role of the FTT in facilitating the social organization of fish processors, and in improving gender equality and empowering women. The study underlines the need to support social organization and provide capacity development training in order to realize the benefits of improved infrastructure and overcome barriers to reaching new markets.
Case study 4: Ayilu et al. present the Fish traders and processors network: Enhancing trade and market access for small-scale fisheries in the West Central Gulf of Guinea. From 2014 to 2018, the Fish Trade Project supported trade and market-driven initiatives for small-scale fisheries in the Fisheries Committee for the West Central Gulf of Guinea (FCWC). A key initiative of this project was the establishment of the FCWC Fish Traders and Processors Network (FCWC FishNET), a platform composed of small-scale traders and processors, with the objective of informing policy gaps and designing market-driven incentives to leverage the collective power of its members to facilitate regional trade. This case study reviews the activities of FCWC FishNET and reflects on the socio-economic role played by trade networks in small-scale fisheries. It also provides an example of how networks can foster knowledge sharing, cooperation and trust among members in support of enhancing value chains, post-harvest operations and trade.
Case study 5: Pomeroy et al. examine Seafood direct marketing: Supporting critical decision-making in Alaska and California. Seafood direct marketing (SDM) arrangements involve fishers selling their catch directly to consumers or beyond the first receiver of the catch. The authors consider a variety of SDM arrangements in terms of the business skills, time and resources required, as well as types of products that can readily be sold, among other factors. Fishers have been drawn to SDM as a means of adapting to regulatory, operational, environmental, social and economic challenges. These marketing arrangements, however, may not be feasible or suitable for all individuals, fisheries or communities. Recognizing this, the case study presents efforts by Sea Grant Extension Programs to assist small-scale fishers and communities in Alaska and California to evaluate and make well-informed decisions about utilizing SDM in their particular context. It provides valuable insights to enable fishers to improve price-per-pound sales and reduce vulnerability to market variability and pricing.
Case study 6: Zheng et al. report on Fair Trade: Certification of a yellowfin tuna handline fishery in Indonesia. Fair Trade USA is a non-profit organization founded in 1998 to help small-scale actors achieve better trading conditions as well as improved social and environmental standards. The organization has reached nearly one million producers globally and delivered USD 551 million in additional profits to farmers, workers and fishers. This case study presents an overview of Fair Trade's Capture Fisheries Standard, with its core objectives of fisher and worker empowerment, economic development of communities, social responsibility and environmental stewardship. It then reviews the process to certify the yellowfin tuna handline fishery in Indonesia, and details how Fair Trade seeks to enable greater equity in value chains and ensure the benefits of trade and export are spread among producers and processors. The study provides a great example of a market-driven blueprint for developing socially, economically and environmentally sustainable value chains.
Case study 7: Kasprzyk et al. present Madagascar's mud crab fishery: How fishers can earn more while catching less. Mangrove mud crab is Madagascar's third most valuable seafood export, with approximately 30 000 small-scale fishers relying on it for income. Since the late 2000s, mangrove mud crab fishing effort has increased significantly due to high international demand, leading to overexploitation. Additionally, post-harvest losses along the value chain due to poor handling, transport and storage have further reduced the earnings and food security of the coastal communities who depend on the mud crab fishery. This case study presents the work undertaken through the SmartFish Programme, in collaboration with the Government of Madagascar and locally based NGOs, to assess and develop methods for reducing overexploitation of mangrove mud crab and increasing benefits to fishers and value chain actors. It provides an excellent example of how practical and low-cost changes in behaviour, logistics and techniques can reduce post-harvest losses, helping fishers to earn more while catching less.
Case study 8: Edwards et al. describe State-led fisheries development: Enabling access to resources and markets in the Maldives pole-and-line skipjack tuna fishery. The fisheries sector is a cornerstone of the Maldives economy, contributing significantly to national employment, foreign exchange and food security. The Pole-And-Line Skipjack Tuna Fishery is the oldest and largest fishery in the country. This case study examines the role of the Maldivian Government in developing a well-managed and sustainable fishery able to compete in the global tuna marketplace: namely, by ensuring preferential access to and benefit from skipjack tuna resources for its own citizens; and by adapting the country's tuna sector to global market conditions. The study pinpoints actions that can be emulated by governments whose fisheries are affected by globalized market demands, thus providing another example of SDG Target 14.b -- "Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets" -- in action at the national level.
Case study 9: Ford et al. review Fishery Improvement Projects: In the context of small-scale fisheries value chains, post-harvest operations and trade. Improving the environmental sustainability of large-scale seafood production using market-based approaches has been a focus of the sustainable seafood movement since the 1990s. One outcome of these efforts has been the development of Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs), which are multistakeholder partnerships designed to encourage value chain actors to improve fisheries sustainability. This case study provides an overview of FIPs and their role in meeting demand for sustainable seafood, and considers their application to small-scale fisheries. It then analyses the strengths and weaknesses of FIPs in the context of the SSF Guidelines.
Source: Zelasney, J., Ford, A., Westlund, L., Ward, A. and Riego Peñarubia, O. eds. 2020. Securing sustainable small-scale fisheries: Showcasing applied practices in value chains, post-harvest operations and trade. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 652. Rome, FAO. https://doi.org/10.4060/ca8402en