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Carlos A. Espinal and Daniel Matulić

Abstract Recirculating aquaculture technology, which includes aquaponics, has been under development for the past 40 years from a combination of technologies derived from the wastewater treatment and aquaculture sectors. Until recently, recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) farms have been relatively small compared with other types of modern aquaculture production. The last two decades have seen a significant increase in the development of this technology, with increased market acceptance and scale. This chapter provides a brief overview of the history, water quality control processes, new developments and ongoing challenges of RAS.

Keywords Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) · Wastewater treatment · Biofilter · Denitrification · Membrane technology


A. Espinal

Landing Aquaculture, Oirschot, The Netherlands


Department of Fisheries, Beekeeping, Game management and Special Zoology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

© The Author(s) 2019 35

S. Goddek et al. (eds.), Aquaponics Food Production Systems,


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