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17.4 Fish Health Management

5 months ago

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17.4.1 Fish Diseases and Prevention

While fish diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi can have a significant negative impact on aquaculture (Kabata 1985), the appearance of a disease in aquaponic systems can be even more devastating. Maintenance of fish health in aquaponic systems is more difficult than in RAS, and, in fact, control of fish diseases is one of the main challenges for successful aquaponics (Sirakov et al. 2016). Diseases which affect fish can be divided into two categories: infectious and non-infectious fish diseases. Infectious diseases are caused by different microbial pathogens transmitted either from the environment or from other fish. Pathogens can be transmitted between the fish (horizontal transmission) or vertically, by (externally or internally) infected eggs or infected milt. More than half of the infectious disease outbreaks in aquaculture (54.9%) are caused by bacteria, followed by viruses, parasites and fungi (McLoughlin and Graham 2007). Often, although clinical signs or lesions are not present, fish can carry pathogens in a subclinical or carrier state (Winton 2002). Fish diseases can be caused by ubiquitous bacteria, present in any water containing organic enrichment. Under certain conditions, bacteria quickly become opportunistic pathogens. The presence of low numbers of parasites on the gills or skin usually does not lead to significant health problems. The capability of a pathogen to cause clinical disease depends on the interrelationship of six major components related to fish and the environment in which they live (physiological status, host, husbandry, environment, nutrition and pathogen). If any of the components is weak, it will affect the health status of the fish (Plumb and Hanson 2011). Non-infectious diseases are usually related to environmental factors, inadequate nutrition or genetic defects (Parker 2012). Successful fish health management is accomplished through disease prevention, reduction of infectious disease incidence and reduction of disease severity when it occurs. Avoidance of contact between the susceptible fish and a pathogen should be a critical goal, in order to prevent outbreak of infectious disease.

Three main measures to achieve this goal are:

  • Use of pathogen-free water supply.

  • Use of certified pathogen-free stocks.

  • Strict attention to sanitation (Winton 2002).

Implementation of these measures will decrease fish exposure to pathogenic agents. However, it is practically impossible to define all agents which could cause disease in the aquatic environment and to completely prevent host exposure to pathogens. Certain factors, such as overcrowding, increase fish susceptibility to infection and pathogen transmission. For that reason, many pathogens which do not cause disease in wild fish can cause disease outbreaks with high mortality rates in high-density fish production systems. To avoid this, the infection level of fish in aquaponics must be continually monitored. Maintaining biosecurity in aquaponics is important not only from an economic point of view but also for fish welfare. Appearance of any fish pathogen in constrained tank space and under high population density will inevitably pose a threat to fish health, both to the individuals that are affected by the pathogen and those still unaffected.

The goal of biosecurity is the implementation of practices and procedures which will reduce the risks of:

  • Introduction of pathogens into the facility.

  • Spread of pathogens throughout the facility.

  • Presence of conditions which can increase susceptibility to infection and disease (Bebak-Williams et al. 2007).

The achievement of this goal involves management protocols to prevent specific pathogens from entering the production system. Quarantine is an important biosecurity component for prevention of contact with infectious agents and is used when fish are moved from one area to another. All newly acquired fish are quarantined before they are introduced into established populations. Fish under quarantine are isolated for a specific period of time before release into contact with a resident population, preferably in a separate area with dedicated equipment (Plumb and Hanson 2011). New fish remain in quarantine until shown to be disease-free. It is advisable in some cases to quarantine new fish in an isolation tank for 45 days before adding them to the main system (Somerville et al. 2014). During quarantine, fish are monitored for signs of disease and sampled for presence of infectious agents. Prophylactic treatments may be initiated during the quarantine period in order to remove initial loads of external parasites.

For disease prevention, certain measures are recommended to reduce risk factors:

  • Administer commercial vaccines against various fish viral and bacterial pathogens. Most common routes of application are by injection, by immersion or via food.

  • Breed strains of fish which are more resistant to certain fish pathogens. Although Evenhuis et al. (2015) report that fish strains with increased simultaneous resistance to two bacterial diseases (columnaris and bacterial cold water disease) are available, there is evidence that increased susceptibility to other pathogens may occur (Das and Sahoo 2014; Henryon et al. 2005).

  • Take preventive and corrective measures to prevent stress in fish. Since multiple stressors are present in every step of aquaponic production, avoidance and management of stress through monitoring and prevention minimize its influence on fish health.

  • Avoid high stocking density, which causes stress and may increase the incidence of disease even if other environmental factors are acceptable. Also, high stocking density increases the possibility of skin lesions, which are sites of various pathogen entries into the organism.

  • Regularly remove contaminants from water (uneaten food, faeces and other particulate organics). Dead or dying fish should be removed promptly as they can serve as potential disease sources to the remaining stock and a breeding ground for others, as well as fouling the water when decomposing (Sitjà-Bobadilla and Oidtmann 2017).

  • Disinfect all equipment used for tank cleaning and fish manipulation. After adequate disinfection, all equipment should be rinsed with clear water. Use of footbaths and hand washing with disinfecting soap at the entrance and within the buildings are recommended. These steps directly decrease the potential for the spread of pathogens (Sitjà-Bobadilla and Oidtmann 2017). Certain chemicals used as disinfectants (such as benzalkonium chloride, chloramine B and T, iodophors) are effective for disease prevention.

  • Administer dietary additives and immunostimulants for improvement of health and to reduce the impacts of disease. Such diets contain various ingredients important for improvement of health and disease resistance (Anderson 1992; Tacchi et al. 2011). There exists a wide range of products and molecules, including natural plant products, immunostimulants, vitamins, microorganisms, organic acids, essential oils, prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, nucleotides, vitamins, etc. (Austin and Austin 2016; Koshio 2016; Martin and Król 2017).

  • Segregate fish by age and species for disease prevention, since susceptibility to certain pathogens varies with age, and certain pathogens are specific to some fish species. Generally, young fish are more susceptible to pathogens than older fish (Plumb and Hanson 2011).

Maintaining the health of fish in aquaponics requires adequate health management and continuous attention. Optimal fish health is best achieved through biosecurity measures, adequate production technology and husbandry management practices which enable optimal conditions. As mentioned, avoidance through optimal rearing conditions and biosecurity procedures are the best way to avoid fish diseases. Invariably, however, a pathogen may appear in the system. The first and most important action is to identify the pathogen correctly.

17.4.2 Disease Diagnosis (Identification of Diseased Fish)

Early recognition of diseased fish is important in maintaining health of the aquaculture unit in the aquaponic system. Accurate diagnosis and prompt response will stop the spread of disease to other fish, thus minimizing losses.

Examination of live fish starts by observing their behaviour. Constant and careful daily observation enables early recognition of diseased fish. As a rule, fish should be observed for behavioural changes before, during and after feeding.

Healthy fish exhibit fast, energetic swimming movements and a strong appetite. They swim in normal, species-specific patterns and have intact skin without discolorations (Somerville et al. 2014). Diseased fish exhibit various behavioural changes with or without visible change in physical appearance. The most obvious indicator of deteriorating fish health is the reduction (cessation) of feeding activity, usually as a result of an environmental stress and/or an infectious/parasitic disease. The most obvious sign of disease is the presence of dead or dying animals (Parker 2012; Plumb and Hanson 2011).

Behavioural changes in diseased fish may include abnormal swimming (swimming near the surface, along the tank sides, crowding at the water inlet, whirling, twisting, darting, swimming upside down), flashing, scratching on the bottom or sides of the tank, unusually slow movement, loss of equilibrium, weakness, hanging listlessly below the surface, lying on the bottom and gasping at the water surface (sign of low oxygen level) or not reacting to external stimuli. In addition to behavioural changes, diseased fish exhibit physical signs that can be seen by the unaided eye. These gross signs can be external, internal or both and may include loss of body mass; distended abdomen or dropsy; spinal deformation; darkening or lightening of the skin; increased mucus production; discoloured areas on the body; skin erosions, ulcers or sores; fin damage; scale loss; cysts; tumours; swelling on the body or gills; haemorrhages, especially on the head and isthmus, in the eyes and at the base of fins; and bulging eyes (pop-eye, exophthalmia) or endophthalmia (sunken eyes). The internal signs are changes in the size, colour and texture of the organs or tissues, accumulation of fluids in the body cavities and presence of pathological formations such as tumours, cysts, haematomas and necrotic lesions (Noga 2010; Parker 2012; Plumb and Hanson 2011; Winton 2002).

Upon suspicion of deteriorating fish health, the first step is to check water quality (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, levels of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate) and promptly respond to any deviations from the optimal range. If the majority of fish in the tank has abnormal behaviour and shows non-specific signs of disease, there is likely a change in the environmental conditions (Parker 2012; Somerville et al. 2014). Low oxygen (hypoxia) is a frequent cause of fish mortality. Fish in water with low oxygen are lethargic, congregate near the water surface, gasp for air and have brighter pigmentation. Dying fish exhibit agonal respiration, with mouth open and opercula flared. These signs are also evident in fish carcasses. High ammonia levels cause hyperexcitability with muscular spasms, cessation of feeding and death. Chronic deviation from optimal levels results in anaemia and decreased growth and disease resistance. Nitrite-poisoned fish have behavioural changes characteristic of hypoxia with pale tan or brown gills and brown blood (Noga 2010).

When only few fish show signs of disease, it is imperative to remove them immediately in order to stop and prevent the spread of the disease agent to the other fish. In the early stages of a disease outbreak, generally only a few fish will show signs and die. In the following days, there will be a gradual increase in the daily mortality rate. The diseased fish must be carefully examined in order to determine the cause. Only a few fish diseases produce pathognomonic (specific to a given disease) behavioural and physical signs. Nevertheless, careful observation will often allow the examiner to narrow down the cause to environmental conditions or disease agents. In a serious disease outbreak, a fish veterinarian/health specialist should be contacted immediately for professional diagnosis and disease management options. In order to solve the disease problem, the diagnostician will need a detailed description of the behavioural and physical signs exhibited by the diseased fish, daily records of the water quality parameters, origin of the fish, date and size of fish at stocking, feeding rate, growth rate and daily mortality (Parker 2012; Plumb and Hanson 2011; Somerville et al. 2014).